Skip to main content

Structural Engineering


 

Masters in Civil Engineering

Structural Engineering

Overview

 

Objectives

Graduates of this program will be able to perform effectively and accurately in areas of Structural Engineering. Specifically, the graduates

of this program will;

i. Understand knowledge of relevant legal aspects in Structural Engineering.

ii. Analyze practical and theoretical problems in order to provide structured solutions in Structural Engineering

 

 

Courses

Compulsory Courses

 

Matrix algebra, solution of equations, review of energy principles, virtual work; degree of redundancy, choice of redundants, flexibility method, kinematic indeterminacy, development of element stiffness matrices, stiffness method of analysis of structures, computer applications and software development, axial force effects and eigenvalue analysis, introduction to finite element method, introduction to structural stability.

Introduction to Cartesian tensors; stress tensor and tensorial transformation of stress; Mohr’s circle for 3-D stress transformation; dyadic and indicial symbols; finite and infinitesimal strain tensors; Mohr’s circle for 3-D strain; constitutive equations for anisotropic material; composite laminates; two dimensional theories of yield; Airy’s stress function in plane elasticity; generalized Fourier series solution to biharmonic equation; elasticity in polar coordinates; thermoelasticity; numerical methods in elasticity.

Constituent materials and their properties. Material behaviour and common models in various loading regimes and application for concrete, steel and reinforced cement concrete. Analysis in flexure; known methods and theories, pre-cracking, post cracking and behaviour at ultimate load, analysis at discrete point on M-ø curve, moment-curvature relationships and ductility, non-linear analysis in flexure, effect of tension in concrete and tension stiffening load-deflection diagram, plastic rotation capacity and curvature ductility, deflection and crack control mechanism, recent researches in cracking and crack width, idealization and idealized models for analysis in flexure, analysis of prismatic non-prismatic sections in flexure. Shear in reinforced concrete; theories regarding diagonal tension problem, shear-flexure interaction, idealization, assumptions, assumptions, prevailing methods, their limitations and scope, ACI adaptation, Torsion as applied to concrete sections, strength of section in torsion for plain and reinforced concrete; review of theories, adaptation by code committee strength of section in combined shear and torsion.

Numerical solutions of linear algebraic equations. Solutions of non‑linear using first and second order iterative methods. Numerical differentiation and integration. Partial differential equations and finite difference methods. Eigen Value problems such as plates. Laplace equations. Applications of Legendre., Chebyshev, Hankal and Bessel Functions to Structural Problems. Application of Taylor Series, Runge Kutta Method. Calculus of Variation, Euler‑Lagrange equations, Raleigh‑Ritz & Galerkin techniques

Basic concepts of prestressed concrete, Systems of prestressing, materials. Partial prestressing, prestress losses. Use of high strength concrete. Structural behaviour of Beams for 

Elective Courses

(Prerequisite: CE 501 Advanced Structural Analysis

Introduction to common areas of stability problems in structures, conservative and non-conservative loads, elastic and inelastic buckling of columns; stability of members under combined bending and axial loads; buckling of frames; torsional buckling of open sections; lateral stability of beams and buckling of thin plates and shells; design considerations for stability.

Single Degree of Freedom Systems: Formulation of the equation of motion and its methods of formulation, Free vibration response; undamped free vibration and damped free vibration; Response to different types of dynamic loadings and different methods of analysis of nonlinear structural response.

Multi Degree of Freedom Systems: Formulation of equation of motion and evaluation of structural property matrix, undamped free vibration, Vibration frequencies; mode shapes, orthogonality conditions, methods of practical vibration analysis and analysis of nonlinear systems, introduction to random vibration, Application of structural dynamics to earthquake engineering and methods of determinstic analysis, soil frame interaction.

(Prerequisite: CE 511 Structural Dynamics)

 Bridge loadings and bridge systems; types of deck structures and idealization; orthotropic plate theory and its application to multi-girder deck systems; use of finite difference and finite strip methods; composite steel girder-slab bridges, pseudo slab, girder-slab and multi-beam type prestressed concrete bridges, design consideration for substructures; analysis of horizontally curved bridge decks.

(Prerequisite: CE 511 Structural Dynamics)

            Introduction to wave propagation in solid media, body and surface waves, reflection and refraction. Causes of earthquake,review of the seismicity of earth with special reference to Pakistan; computation of response to lateral forces. Review of structural vibration theory and response spectrum. Methods for analysis of multi‑storeyed buildings and others subjected to earthquake motions. Design of reinforced concrete structures to resist earthquake forces, concepts of ductility and energy absorption. Reliability Analysis.

Wind loads, Gust factors & Karman Vortices. Design for strength and stability, thermal loads, fatigue and corrosion. Behaviour of tall structures under static and dynamic loads. Design for buckling. Criteria for design of Chimneys, TV towers, Transmission towers and Tubular Scaffolding.

Review of elastic-plastic concepts of structural behaviour; plastic design of beams and frames; design of plate girders, compression member with large width-thickness ratio, stiffened plate, composite design and behaviour, behaviour of rigid and semi-rigid connections; design considerations for fracture and fatigue; design of rigid frames; behaviour of multistory frames and second-order analysis.

(Pre requisite: CE 507 Advanced Concrete Technology)  (3)

 Review of engineering properties of conventional and prestressed reinforced concrete materials. Review of design theories and its implications. Review of deterioration and causes of deterioration of concrete structures and its implication on structures. Implication of debonding of reinforcing steel and analytical modelling of sections with unbounded reinforcement. Need of strengthening are re-strengthening. Prevailing strengthening techniques and their comparison. Recent researches in strengthening in flexure and shear, methodologies, analysis, design and execution. Strengthening techniques related to columns and foundations. Case studies of strengthened and re-strengthened structures.

Mechanics of earthquakes and strong ground motion characteristics, response spectra and seismic response of elastic and inelastic systems, mechanical behaviour of structural members under earthquake excitations, seismic design philosophies, philosophy of seismic design for reinforced concrete structures, building code procedures for seismic design, advantages of performance-based seismic design, seismic performance levels, measures of seismic performance, seismic hazard, performance objectives, general approaches for estimating deformation capacity of the structures, response spectra, fundamental consideration of direct displacement-based design, analysis tools for direct displacement-based design, framed buildings, dual wall-frame buildings, masonry buildings, structures with isolation and added damping, pushover analysis.

Overview of structure of cementitious materials, Physical, Chemical Composition and Microstructure of advanced cementitious materials.  Characterization Techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffraction (XRD).  The properties to be studied include Fresh properties; Workability, Consistency, Rheology. Hardened properties; Physical, Mechanical, Thermal. Durability.

 The cementitious composites to be covered include: High Performance Concrete, Self-Consolidating Concrete, Self-Healing Concrete, Shotcrete, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Cellular Concrete; Foamed Concrete AND Slurry infiltrated Concrete (SIFCON). Pozzolan and Supplementary (waste) Materials; Silica Fume, Fly ash, Metakaolin, Rice Husk, Bagasse Ash

 

Philosophy and need for displacement based design (DBD), review of conventional force based design (FBD) methods with particular reference to seismic design codes, review for DBD methods, advantages of DBD over FBD with illustrative examples, seismic input for DBD method such as displacement spectrum; concept of hysteretic damping and displacement ductility; influence of displacement and ductility on spectral displacement response; attenuation model for displacement spectrum, fundamental considerations of DBD, design limit states and performance levels, single degree of freedom (SDF) structures, multi-degree of freedom (MDF) structures, p-delta effects, combination of seismic and gravity loadings, considerations for torsional response, capacity design of members, nonlinear analysis tools, force-displacement response for reinforced concrete members, force-displacement response for steel members, analysis related to capacity design philosophy, application of DBD in buildings,  bridges  and  structures  with  base  isolation  and  added  damping.

Mechanics of earthquakes and strong ground motion characteristics, response spectra and seismic response of elastic and inelastic systems, mechanical behaviour of structural members under earthquake excitations, seismic design philosophies, philosophy of seismic design for reinforced concrete structures, building code procedures for seismic design, advantages of performance-based seismic design, seismic performance levels, measures of seismic performance, seismic hazard, performance objectives, general approaches for estimating deformation capacity of the structures, response spectra, fundamental consideration of direct displacement-based design, analysis tools for direct displacement-based design, framed buildings, dual wall-frame buildings, masonry buildings, structures with isolation and added damping, pushover analysis.

Elastic and inelastic behaviour of steel subjected to static and dynamic loading, mechanical behaviour of steel beams, types of connection, behaviour of connections, methods of global analysis, seismic design of steel structures using seismic design provisions, concepts of ductility, inter-storey drift; behaviour factors/force reduction factors and damage, capacity design principles, typology of steel structures, effect of global instability, effects of diaphragms, semi-rigid connections and axial forces, seismic design of moment resisting steel frames; braced steel frames and composite structures, introduction to performance and displacement based design, hybrid force and displacement based design and use of advanced methods of analysis.

An introduction to masonry and non-engineered construction, mechanical properties of clay brick, cellular concrete block, autoclave aerated concrete (AAC) block, adobe and stone masonry units, categories of masonry walls for seismic resistance, in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of masonry assemblages and walls, analytical methods for masonry walls, seismic design of masonry moment resisting wall frames and masonry-infilled frames, assessment of unreinforced masonry structures, design principles and code specifications for masonry construction, repair and strengthening techniques for damaged masonry buildings after earthquakes, displacement based design of masonry structures.

Modelling parameters, geometric nonlinearity and material inelasticity, concentrated vs. distributed plasticity modelling approach, nonlinear dynamic analysis, selection, scaling and matching of accelerograms, nonlinear static analysis, conventional pushover analysis, multi-modal pushover analysis and adaptive pushover analysis, nonlinear static procedures, capacity spectrum method (CSM), adaptive capacity spectrum method (ACSM), N2 method, modal pushover analysis (MPA) method and displacement based earthquake loss assessment (DBELA) method, seismic vulnerability assessment of single structures using nonlinear static and dynamic procedures with special reference to  (FEMA) and Applied Technology Council (ATC) provisions, seismic vulnerability assessment of groups of structures (empirical and analytical methods), hazard, exposure, human/economic losses, remote sensing and global earthquake model (GEM) initiative.

Fire and its ingredients, chemistry and physics of fires, smouldering, fuels and materials, combustion process, fire combustion products and toxicity, forms of heat transfer, heat flux as an indication of damage, radiation form fires, piloted and auto-ignition, ignition time, diffusion and premixed flames, flame spread, flame spread rate, burning rate, fire development, fire growth rate, fully developed fires, fire plumes, compartment fires, fire spread, smoke movement, smoke spread, smoke hazard management

Bridge Typologies and Bridge components; Classification of Road Bridges; functional and operational requirements; Bridge planning and selection of Bridge site; Collection of bridge design data; Standard loading for bridge design and design process for highway bridges; Bridge management systems (process, characteristics and practice); Bridge management cycle; Bridge inventory data; Bridge inspection methods; Collection of bridge condition information; Bridge condition assessment (historical & recent perspective); Bridge assessment models and assessing a bridge in terms of damage and defects; Aging and deterioration processes; Performance problems and threats; Identifying functional deficiencies; Recognizing reduced redundancy; Bridge condition ratings; Bridge condition index; Challenges associated with various bridge component rating methods; Seismic vulnerability and assessment of damage; Systematic evaluations of bridges based on failure modes; Fragility curves; Repair and retrofitting, Priorization; Optimization of retrofit methods

Basic equations of elasticity; virtual work; stiffness; properties of structural elements; variational and weighted residual methods; application to trusses, beams, plane frames, two-dimensional, axi-symmetric and three-dimensional solids; higher order and isoparametric elements; field and time-dependent problems of fluid and heat flow; computational modelling

Basic equations of elasticity; virtual work; stiffness; properties of structural elements; variational and weighted Overview of FRP reinforcement; constituent materials for FRP; properties of FRP composites; design issues such as cover delamination, FRP debonding; design basis for FRP reinforcement and strengthening; flexure and shear design; serviceability design of FRP RC beams; FRP reinforcement detailing; flexure strengthening of beams and slabs; shear strengthening of RC members; FRP confining for columns; fire resistance and endurance of FRP reinforced structures

Introduction to fracture mechanics; applications of fracture mechanics to concrete; principles of linear-elastic fracture mechanics; principles of nonlinear fracture mechanics; dynamic fracture mechanics; nonlinear fracture models; structure and fracture process of concrete; nonlinear fracture mechanics for mode I quasi-brittle fracture; test methods to determine mode I fracture properties for concrete; fracture resistance curves (R-curves) for quasi-brittle materials; tension softening response of concrete; applications of fracture mechanics to plain and reinforced concrete structures under static and temperature load

Fire safety in buildings; fundamentals of fire behaviour in buildings; room fires and post-flashover fires; estimating the temperatures in building compartments and individual structural members; fire severity and the concept of equivalent fire severity; standard test results and calculation methods for fire resistance; fundamentals of the behaviour of common construction materials under fire; application of structural analysis principles to the fire problem; design of structures exposed to fire; fire resistance design of steel structures; fire resistance design of concrete structures; fire resistance design of lightweight frame structures

Fire safety concepts; design fires; flame spread, modelling of flame spread and fire growth; external fire spread and heat radiation; smoke movement; buoyancy; principles of smoke hazard management; smoke spread; smoke hazard management subsystems; fire safety measures; fire safety system design principles, occupant evacuation; fire department response; qualitative and quantitative risk assessment; fire safety risk management; logic trees

Introduction to Forensic Engineering; Competencies and Qualifications of Forensic Engineers: qualifications, attributes competencies, technical skills, legal knowledge, detective skills, communication skills, personality characteristics etc. The Standard of Care: expert testimony, methods, validity, reliability, Delphi process of expert consensus; Civil Engineering Investigations: activities in investigation, site investigation, sampling and collection of evidence, preliminary findings, equipment and its selection, recording observations, photography, sample removal, eyewitness account, field tests, document collection and review, theoretical analysis, laboratory tests and investigation, office investigations determination of procedural responsibilities, reports; Ethics of Forensic Engineering: code of ethics, solicitation of work, contract process, testimony ethics, damage caused by unethical conduct, ethical standards for publication, interaction with media; The Legal Forum: role of forensic engineer as a witness in mediation and litigation, admissibility of testimony by forensic engineers, rules of evidence and testimony, testimony in courts and at deposition (preparation, demeanor, speech, direct examination, cross examination etc.), codes and guidelines (local and international) for professionals engaged as experts; The Business of Forensic Engineering: readiness, marketing, decisions, liability, insurance individual and group practice; National and International Case Studies.